Spartan Age

Review of: Spartan Age

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On 07.10.2020
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Spartan Age

Das Spartan Race im Olympiapark geht am / in seine nächste ab Uhr Spartan Sprint Age Group Heat Uhr Spartan Sprint Open. Es gibt zehn Age Group Kategorien für männliche und weibliche Teilnehmer: ​17 (in DE/AT/CH/ESP/IT/FRA/AND/NL) ist der Start beim. Ergebnisse Spartan - Teneriffa bis - MaxFun Sports ist die führende MW, m. Spartan Beast European Championship Age Group.

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Es gibt zehn Age Group Kategorien für männliche und weibliche Teilnehmer: ​17 (in DE/AT/CH/ESP/IT/FRA/AND/NL) ist der Start beim. Im weiteren werden die drei Kategorien ELITE, AGE GROUP und OPEN beschrieben. Die Elite Kategorie. Wer hier teilnimmt tritt gegen die Besten der Besten an. spartan race andorra. Results: Andorra es un destino espectacular para poder disfrutar de una carrera dura y de un paisaje único. A box full of surprises so the​.

Spartan Age Train like a Spartan Video

The Animated History of Sparta

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Spartan wurde Brych Felix den kantigen Bergen von Vermont geboren und ist der am schnellsten wachsende Wettbewerber der Welt. However, please note that minimum age requirements (14+ for general race events, and 18+ for Spartan Endurance events) will still be enforced on race day, regardless of . Spartan boys left their parental homes at the age of 7 to start their public education in the agoge. At age 21 they changed the barracks of the agoge for the barracks of the army, so it was not until age 31 that they could at last move into their own home or kleros and live with their own families. Those who passed the agoge by the age of 30 achieved full Spartan citizenship. The term "spartan" became in modern times synonymous with simplicity by design. During classical times Lacedaemonian or Laconian was used for attribution, referring to the region of the polis instead of one of the decentralized settlements called Sparta. Im weiteren werden die drei Kategorien ELITE, AGE GROUP und OPEN beschrieben. Die Elite Kategorie. Wer hier teilnimmt tritt gegen die Besten der Besten an. Von den Startern der Age Group Wellen wird erwartet, dass sie den gleichen Regeln und Standards folgen wie die Elite Heat Starter. Es gibt die folgenden. Es gibt zehn Age Group Kategorien für männliche und weibliche Teilnehmer: ​17 (in DE/AT/CH/ESP/IT/FRA/AND/NL) ist der Start beim. Im Vergleich zum letzten Jahr bin ich seit in die Spartan Race Elite Platz Trifecta WELTMEISTERSCHAFT Sparta, Griechenland Age Group 3.

This meant that most brides were roughly half the age of their husbands. Athenian girls were reared in their houses on a diet smaller and less nutritious than that of their brothers, lacking meat, fish, spices, and wine.

They were kept indoors, without exposure to direct sunlight or physical exercise, received no formal education, and were usually illiterate.

They were taught that women should speak as little as possible, and certainly not in the presence of men. Once an Athenian maiden reached sexual maturity, she knew that her male guardian would marry her off, but she had no say in the matter.

Normally girls were married to a complete stranger — a man they did not see until the day he came and took her away from her home, family and everything she had known until then.

She was removed to a strange house, sometimes far away from her parental home, and surrounded by strangers.

She might share the household with her husband's mother, sisters, and even his concubines. Here she was still not allowed control of money worth more than a bushel of grain, and it was considered a disgrace for her to be seen standing in the doorway of her house, much less in the market or elsewhere.

Talking to a strange man was cause for scandal — until she was old enough to be a grandmother. She might leave the house only to go to the childbed of a neighbor, to attend a wedding or funeral, or to take part in religious festivals.

Even more devastating are frequent references to exposing children. A father could decide to kill any child that seemed an unnecessary financial burden.

Because of the need to provide a dowry for daughters, and given the low value placed on women generally, it is fair to assume that, as in other cultures from China to Afghanistan today, girls were far more likely to be left to die by their own fathers.

Last but not least, if a woman was raped or seduced, her husband was required by law to divorce her. Even if a husband was understanding or devoted, Athenian law mandated divorce or the man lost his own citizenship.

SPARTAN MARRIAGE. In Sparta the picture was dramatically different. Spartan boys left their parental homes at the age of 7 to start their public education in the agoge.

At age 21 they changed the barracks of the agoge for the barracks of the army, so it was not until age 31 that they could at last move into their own home or kleros and live with their own families.

This fact has led many modern scholars to impute widespread homosexuality to Spartan men, but such an assunption ignores entirely the reality surrounding those barracks.

First, even as small boys, Spartan males spent much of their time out of doors playing, hunting, riding, and swimming. And everywhere the boys went they encountered the female children of their class — because, unlike Athenian girls, Spartan girls were required by law to go to public school just like their brothers.

The girls, too, were required to go to the public playing fields, racecourses, and gymnasiums in order to learn to run, wrestle, and throw the discus and javelin.

The girls, like their brothers, swam in the Eurotas to cool off. And the girls exercised and swam in the nude just like their brothers.

Hercules known in Greek as Heracles or Herakles is one of the best-known heroes in Greek and Roman mythology. His life was not easy—he endured many trials and completed many daunting tasks—but the reward for his suffering was a promise that he would live forever among the gods The classical period was an era of war and conflict—first between the Greeks and the Persians, then between the Leonidas c.

Although Leonidas lost the battle, his death at Thermopylae was seen as a heroic sacrifice because he sent most Live TV. This Day In History.

HISTORY Podcasts. History at Home. Shows This Day In History Schedule Topics Stories. WATCH: Spartan Vengeance on HISTORY Vault Spartan Society Sparta, also known as Lacedaemon, was an ancient Greek city-state located primarily in the present-day region of southern Greece called Laconia.

The Spartan Military Unlike such Greek city-states as Athens, a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, Sparta was centered on a warrior culture.

READ MORE: How Ancient Sparta's Harsh Military System Trained Boys Into Fierce Warriors The teenage boys who demonstrated the most leadership potential were selected for participation in the Crypteia, which acted as a secret police force whose primary goal was to terrorize the general Helot population and murder those who were troublemakers.

Spartan Women and Marriage Spartan women had a reputation for being independent-minded, and enjoyed more freedoms and power than their counterparts throughout ancient Greece.

READ MORE: 8 Reasons It Wasn't Easy Being Spartan Decline of the Spartans In B. Damned Mummies. Spartan Boot Camp: Killing Machines.

When John was finished, he was dropped off in the first of three snowy chasms leading towards the Control Room. During the long trek, he encountered Fire Team Zulu and they assisted him in securing the first and second chasms.

Initially, fighting on Halo was between UNSC and Covenant forces, but after Covenant forces had unwittingly released an ancient parasite , the majority of both forces were infected, and the fighting shifted to combating the new enemy.

John was sent out by Installation 04's Monitor, Guilty Spark , to retrieve the Index , an activation device for the Halo ring that John is led to believe would destroy all Flood forms within a large radius.

John was then forced to disrupt Halo's firing system by disabling Halo's Phase Pulse Generator in order to delay the Monitor's plan.

John soon joined the three-sided combat among the Covenant, the Flood and the Forerunners' Sentinels.

Soon after, he tried to rescue Captain Keyes, but was too late. Captain Keyes had been transformed into a Proto-Gravemind Flood form. After infiltrating the Truth and Reconciliation , John managed to retrieve the Captain's neural implants, which he used to activate the Pillar of Autumn's self-destruct sequence.

He then proceeded to the hangar of the ship and stole a Banshee. After the self-destruct sequence was aborted by Guilty Spark, he proceeded to manually overload the fusion reactors, which would subsequently destroy both the Pillar of Autumn and Installation After successfully destroying the fusion reactors on the Pillar of Autumn , John used a Warthog to reach the extraction point where Pelican Echo would pick him up.

John reached the extraction point, only to witness the Pelican crashing into the Autumn ' s hull after being shot down by a pair of Banshees.

John quickly diverted his escape route towards the ship's hangar bay, which housed a Longsword fighter. After the destruction of Alpha Halo, Cortana and John fled through space in the Longsword they had escaped in.

He discovered three cryotubes floating nearby, one containing Linda, and retrieved them. Soon after, the Covenant's flagship Ascendant Justice came into the system along with a few cruisers, some of which had possibly escaped Halo's destruction and called the flagship to Threshold.

A nearby Pelican dropship, which had docked on an asteroid floating among Halo's debris field,fired at the cruiser to distract it.

After a successful escape from the Covenant battle group, John linked the two vessels and brought its passengers aboard the Longsword.

The crew of the Pelican then helped John in capturing the Ascendant Justice ; the human survivors then traveled to Reach to look for surviving Spartans.

John eventually located some of his fellow Spartan-IIs on Reach, along with Vice Admiral Danforth Whitcomb and Dr. They returned to the ship and linked it with the UNSC frigate UNSC Gettysburg.

They began to travel toward Earth and soon discovered a base belonging to the Eridanus Rebels , led by Governor Jacob Jiles. The remaining UNSC forces were forced to abandon the rebels in the face of a Covenant assault, and made their way toward the Covenant refit-and-repair station, Unyielding Hierophant , where an enormous fleet was poised to invade Earth.

Just before the slipspace jump, Corporal Locklear inadvertently commits suicide while distorting the Forerunner Crystal , recovered by Dr Halsey from underneath the ruins of CASTLE base.

Halsey gave it to the Corporal shortly before her departure, intending him to destroy it rather than let it fall into the hands of the Covenant.

John faced a dilemma regarding the combat data on the Flood which Dr. Halsey had given him: providing the standard data set to Lieutenant Haverson would protect Sergeant Johnson from possible experimentation by ONI.

However, providing him the complete data, which contained reference to Sergeant Johnson's escape from the Flood due to his Boren's Syndrome , would result in Johnson's death.

John and the few remaining Spartan-IIs: Linda, Grace , William , and Fred, focused on finding a way to stop the Covenant from reaching Earth , the location of which had been discovered.

They decided to destroy the Unyielding Hierophant. The Spartan-IIs infiltrated the station; after spending eleven hours on board, they arrived at a temple, where a copy of Cortana warned them of the Jiralhanae guards stationed at the temple.

Linda took a sniping position, and the other four Spartans entered the temple. They were ambushed by Jiralhanae, and John was nearly killed, but the team managed to kill their attackers.

Grace, however, was killed by three Jiralhanae Shot rounds. John activated the fail-safe on her armor, denying her compromise by the Covenant.

The team sabotaged the generators in the Unyielding Hierophant ; as they escaped through a side door, the fail-safe on Grace's armor activated, disintegrating a Covenant lance.

John, Fred, and Will were quickly spotted by three Banshees, but their Sangheili pilots were killed by Linda's sniper fire.

The Banshees were then captured by the Spartans. John doubled back to retrieve Linda, who killed four more Banshee pilots who were attempting to kill John.

They then escaped by destroying a glass atrium, and arrived back at the UNSC Gettysburg. Vice Admiral Whitcomb and Lieutenant Haverson piloted the Ascendant Justice straight toward the Unyielding Hierophant.

Whitcomb discussed the battles of the Alamo and Thermopylae with John, then prepared to fight the Covenant off while the Unyielding Hierophant ' s fusion reactor detonated.

Each of the Covenant ships maneuvered next to the Ascendant Justice. The Admiral and the Lieutenant were killed when the fusion reactor exploded, annihilating ships of the Covenant fleet, leaving only around a dozen intact; these ships later joined the Prophet of Truth's rebuilt fleet in the attack on Earth.

John left after witnessing Whitcomb's and Haverson's sacrifice, and arrived at Earth with the last members of his team, Linda, Will, and Fred, as well as Johnson and Cortana.

Master Chief detonates the Covenant's bomb in their own ship, drastically turning the tide of the Battle of Earth.

Aboard Cairo Station , John received the Mjolnir Mark VI Powered Assault Armor and attended an awards ceremony with the newly promoted Lieutenant Commander Miranda Keyes and Sergeant Major Johnson.

The ceremony was interrupted by the arrival of the Fleet of Sacred Consecration , initiating the Battle of Earth. John successfully repulsed Covenant boarders from the station.

Upon discovering a Covenant Anti-Matter Charge on board Cairo Station , John fought his way through waves of Sangheili, Unggoy, and Yanme'e until he reached the bomb and allowed Cortana to access and deactivate it by transferring her back to his suit.

Afterwards, she chose to rejoin him despite his offer for her to remain on the station. He used the charge against the Covenant by launching himself and the device, via decompression of one of the station's launch bays, towards an Assault Carrier.

A timely strike by Longsword interceptors opened a breach in the warship's hull, allowing John to direct the bomb into the ship's fusion core.

He then proceeded to use the blast from the bomb to launch himself back into the UNSC In Amber Clad. A photo of John in New Mombasa edited by Benjamin Giraud.

John was then deployed to New Mombasa, East African Protectorate aboard the UNSC In Amber Clad. In an attempt to board Solemn Penance , both of the strike teams' Pelican dropships were shot down by a Scarab.

John and the surviving Marines on his team fought their way to the other Pelican's crash site. After rendezvousing with Gunnery Sergeant Marcus Stacker at Hotel Zanzibar in Old Mombasa , John destroyed Covenant units along the shore of the city as he chased the Scarab.

After fighting through numerous highway tunnels and suburbs, John reached the city center , where Marines under the command of Staff Sergeant Marcus Banks were pinned down by Covenant forces.

With the assistance of the Marines and a large stockpile of weapons, John boarded the Scarab and was able to destroy it and the Covenant forces protecting it.

John was then transported to In Amber Clad to intercept the Prophet of Regret 's flagship. When the flagship started to enter Slipspace, Lieutenant Commander Keyes was granted permission to follow it.

Forced to act quickly once at Installation 05, John deployed groundside in an SOEIV along with several Orbital Drop Shock Troopers. This team was tasked with locating and assassinating the Prophet of Regret.

Cortana informed John of Regret's intent to fire Halo as soon as possible. He tracked the Prophet of Regret to a temple in the middle of a lake, but not before witnessing hundreds of Covenant vessels coming out of Slipspace, followed by High Charity.

He quickly dispatched the Prophet of Regret, and escaped the temple shortly before it was destroyed by an overhead cruiser.

John jumped off the edge of the structure and into the lake below. Losing consciousness and being unable to swim in the lake, he was captured by the Flood's central intelligence, the Gravemind.

Shortly after, Thel 'Vadamee, the Arbiter, was also captured. The Gravemind appealed to the common interest that the Flood and humans share: preventing the Halos from being fired.

John agreed to help, so the Gravemind tasked both captives with locating the Index, and sent them to the two most likely locations.

John was sent to High Charity , interrupting a sermon by the Prophet of Truth. The conflict between the Sangheili and Jiralhanae was beginning, leading the Covenant on the path to civil war, with John caught right in the middle.

After saving imprisoned marines, John chased the surviving Hierarchs through High Charity. About that time, the now flood-infested In Amber Clad made a slipspace jump into the city, and eventually crashed into a building.

The Flood used Pelican dropships from the In Amber Clad to spread the parasite throughout High Charity. Despite the Flood, Chief eventually caught up to the Prophets and their Jiralhanae escorts.

However, only the dying Prophet of Mercy , who had become a Flood Infection Form , was left to tell him that Truth was heading to Earth.

John faced another crucial dilemma: the Covenant had the Index and could activate Halo; however, Earth's defenses stood little chance of withstanding Truth's reassembled fleet.

Ultimately, John followed the latter priority and, not wanting to risk detonating them remotely, was forced to leave Cortana behind so that if Halo were activated, she could detonate In Amber Clad ' s reactors.

John boarded the Forerunner dreadnought , which was bound for Earth, but not before promising to return for Cortana after he stopped Truth.

John and the Forerunner dreadnought return to Earth; with John using a piece of the Dreadnought as a shield.

After a series of firefights, captures and escapes, [34] John exited the Dreadnought and crash-landed on Earth, within an East African jungle, where he was found by Sergeant Johnson, the Arbiter, and the rest of their squad.

Johnson believed John to be dead, and requested heavy lifting gear in order to recover the Spartan's body. He attempted to attack the Arbiter, believing that the Sangheili were still the enemy.

Johnson informed him that the Arbiter was an ally, as the disillusioned Arbiter and the Sangheili had defected from the Covenant. John and the Marines traveled through the jungle, searching for evacuation to a nearby military base.

Johnson and his team split up from John and the Arbiter; the sergeant and his squad were soon captured by loyalist Covenant Jiralhanae, although they were rescued by John and Thel 'Vadam.

After taking heavy fire from Phantoms , a Pelican dropship evacuated the team to a UNSC base known as Crow's Nest.

The base soon came under attack, but not before Fleet Admiral Terrence Hood told John his plan. Lieutenant Commander Keyes decided to evacuate all forces, many of whom were injured.

John, Thel and the remaining UNSC Marines defended the base during its evacuation, planting a massive bomb to destroy the base along with the invading Covenant forces.

John fought his way through many Jiralhanae, escaping the explosion in an elevator. At the Battle of Voi , John pushed through many Loyalist forces as he made his way to what was believed to be the Ark.

Rather, this turned out to be a device that opened up a portal to the Ark. With Marine support, John destroyed three Anti-Air Wraiths , a Scarab, and a Covenant Type Anti-Aircraft Cannon , allowing Lord Hood's remaining frigates, the UNSC Forward Unto Dawn, Aegis Fate, and another frigate to fire upon Truth's Dreadnought, though to little effect.

Truth then activated and fled through the Portal with his remaining Loyalist forces, while the UNSC remained behind to determine their next move.

Just as the battle seemed finished, the Flood-infested Covenant cruiser Indulgence of Conviction crash-landed in Voi. John, the Arbiter, and the remaining Marines fought to contain the Flood infection, learning that the only way to contain the Flood was to destroy the warship.

During the battle, The CAS -class Shadow of Intent and its Sangheli fleet, led by Shipmaster Rtas 'Vadum came to aid the UNSC. He deployed a Special Operations Sangheili strike team through Orbital Insertion Pods , assisting John as he was sent to retrieve Cortana from the cruiser, as it was believed that she was on board.

Aided by Guilty Spark, John retrieved a damaged data device and was brought aboard 'Vadum's flagship, Shadow of Intent.

This data turned out to be only a message, rather than Cortana herself. The Sangheili were able to stop the Flood infestation by glassing the city and its surroundings, much to Hood's displeasure.

The Sangheili and the UNSC watched Cortana's recording, which contained a warning that High Charity , now overwhelmed and controlled by the Gravemind, was heading for Earth.

However, she offered hope, with information of a way to stop the Halos from firing and neutralize the Flood threat.

Convinced of the reliability of Cortana's message, John resolved to journey to the Ark, while Hood mobilized remaining UNSC forces on Earth.

Master Chief on Installation 08 wielding a Battle Rifle. The Sangheili carried UNSC forces through the Slipspace portal which led to the Ark.

The team was determined to stop Truth from activating the remaining six Halos. They descended in Pelicans while the Shipmaster's fleet fought hard against the Jiralhanae ships.

They flew to the surface of the Ark to eliminate the Covenant in the area, to secure a landing zone for UNSC Forward Unto Dawn , and to find the Ark's Cartographer.

Traveling in Scorpions , Warthogs , and captured Prowlers , John and other Marines located the Cartographer and learned that Truth was in the Installation's Citadel.

John then escaped from the Cartographer and proceeded to assault the fortress. John, The Arbiter, and a squad of UNSC Marines were assigned to separately attack three barrier towers , which were emitting a protective shield around the Citadel.

Although John and Arbiter managed to deactivate two towers, Sergeant Johnson was captured in the battle, being spared to serve as a Reclaimer.

John, Arbiter, and the Sangheili deactivated the last tower, lowering the shield. Just as the Shadow of Intent was about to destroy the Citadel, the Flood-controlled High Charity exited Slipspace, bringing the Flood into the battle and disabling the Shadow of Intent with a Flood Biomass boulder.

After defeating the last remnants of the Loyalist forces around the Citadel, including two Scarabs, John and the Arbiter entered the Citadel.

Although Miranda Keyes had forced her way in, breaking through the central window with her Pelican, she was soon surrounded.

As she hesitated to kill Johnson then herself, Truth shot and killed Keyes with a Spiker. Truth then forced Johnson to begin the activation sequence.

Every male age 30 and above could participate. Aristotle called the Spartan electoral process "childish" in contrast to the stone ballots cast by the Athenians.

Sparta adopted its procedure for the sake of simplicity, and to prevent any bias voting, bribing, or cheating that was predominant in the early democratic elections.

The Spartan public education system, the agoge , trained the mind as well as the body. Spartans were not only literate, but admired for their intellectual culture and poetry.

Socrates said the "most ancient and fertile homes of philosophy among the Greeks are Crete and Sparta, where are found more sophists than anywhere on earth.

Self-discipline, not kadavergehorsam mindless obedience was the goal of Spartan education. Sparta placed the values of liberty, equality, and fraternity at the center of their ethical system.

These values applied to every full Spartan citizen, immigrant, merchant, and even to the helots , but not to the dishonored.

Helots are unique in the history of slavery in that unlike traditional slaves, they were allowed to keep and gain wealth. They could keep half their agricultural produce and presumably sell it; thus accumulating wealth.

There are known to have been some occasions that a helot with enough money was allowed to purchase their freedom from the state. The Spartan hoplite followed a strict laconic code of honor.

No soldier was considered superior to another. Recklessness could lead to dishonor, as in the case of Aristodemus. Dishonored Spartans were labeled outcasts, and were forced to wear different clothing for public humiliation.

Throughout their history, the Spartans were a land based force par excellence. During the Persian Wars, they contributed a small navy of 20 triremes , and provided the overall fleet commander, but they largely relied on their allies, primarily the Corinthians , for naval power.

This fact meant that, when the Peloponnesian War broke out, the Spartans were supreme on land, but the Athenians supreme at sea.

The Spartans repeatedly ravaged Attica , but the Athenians kept being supplied by sea, and were able to stage raids of their own around the Peloponnese with their navy.

Eventually, it was the creation of a navy that enabled Sparta to overcome Athens. With Persian gold, Lysander, appointed navarch in BC, was able to master a strong navy, and successfully challenge and destroy Athenian predominance in the Aegean Sea.

The final blow would be given 20 years later, at the Battle of Naxos in BC. A small fleet was periodically maintained thereafter, but its effectiveness was limited; the last revival of Spartan naval power was under Nabis , who, with aid from his Cretan allies, created a fleet to control the Laconian coastline.

The fleet was commanded by navarchs , who were appointed for a strictly one-year term, and apparently could not be reappointed.

The admirals were subordinated to the vice-admiral, called epistoleus. This position is seemingly independent of the one-year term clause, because it was used, in BC to give Lysander command of the fleet after he was already an admiral for a year.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Spartan Army. For other uses, see Military history of Sparta disambiguation.

Further information: Mycenaean Greece. Further information: Spartan hegemony. Further information: Agoge. Further information: Phalanx.

Further information: Laconic phrase. Main article: Sparta in popular culture. Further information: Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture.

In Hornblower, Simon ed. Among other findings, they uncovered the remains of two Mycenaean mansions and found the first offerings dedicated to Helen and Menelaus.

These mansions were destroyed by earthquake and fire, and archaeologists consider them the possible palace of Menelaus himself.

Its area was approximately equal to that of the "newer" Sparta, but denudation has wreaked havoc with its buildings and nothing is left of its original structures save for ruined foundations and broken potsherds.

The prehistory of Sparta is difficult to reconstruct because the literary evidence was written far later than the events it describes and is distorted by oral tradition.

This civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze Age , when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north called Dorians by those they conquered marched into the Peloponnese and, subjugating the local tribes, settled there.

The evidence suggests that Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the Taygetan plain, was secure from early on: it was never fortified.

Nothing distinctive in the archaeology of the Eurotas River Valley identifies the Dorians or the Dorian Spartan state.

The prehistory of the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Dark Age the Early Iron Age at this moment must be treated apart from the stream of Dorian Spartan history.

The legendary period of Spartan history is believed to fall into the Dark Age. It treats the mythic heroes such as the Heraclids and the Perseids , offering a view of the occupation of the Peloponnesus that contains both fantastic and possibly historical elements.

The subsequent proto-historic period, combining both legend and historical fragments, offers the first credible history.

Between the 8th and 7th centuries BCE the Spartans experienced a period of lawlessness and civil strife, later attested by both Herodotus and Thucydides.

In the Second Messenian War , Sparta established itself as a local power in the Peloponnesus and the rest of Greece. During the following centuries, Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was unequalled.

The likely total of 40,—50, made Sparta one of the larger Greek city-states; [33] [34] however, according to Thucydides, the population of Athens in BCE was ,—,, making it much larger.

In BCE a small force led by King Leonidas about full Spartiates, Thespians, and Thebans, although these numbers were lessened by earlier casualties made a legendary last stand at the Battle of Thermopylae against the massive Persian army, inflicting very high casualties on the Persian forces before finally being overwhelmed.

The decisive Greek victory at Plataea put an end to the Greco-Persian War along with Persian ambitions to expand into Europe. Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides providing the leading forces at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.

In later Classical times, Sparta along with Athens , Thebes , and Persia were the main powers fighting for supremacy in the northeastern Mediterranean.

In the course of the Peloponnesian War , Sparta, a traditional land power, acquired a navy which managed to overpower the previously dominant flotilla of Athens, ending the Athenian Empire.

At the peak of its power in the early 4th century BCE, Sparta had subdued many of the main Greek states and even invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia modern day Turkey , a period known as the Spartan Hegemony.

During the Corinthian War , Sparta faced a coalition of the leading Greek states: Thebes , Athens , Corinth , and Argos. The alliance was initially backed by Persia, which feared further Spartan expansion into Asia.

The event severely damaged Sparta's naval power but did not end its aspirations of invading further into Persia, until Conon the Athenian ravaged the Spartan coastline and provoked the old Spartan fear of a helot revolt.

After a few more years of fighting, in BCE the Peace of Antalcidas was established, according to which all Greek cities of Ionia would return to Persian control, and Persia's Asian border would be free of the Spartan threat.

This was the first time that a full strength Spartan army lost a land battle. As Spartan citizenship was inherited by blood, Sparta increasingly faced a helot population that vastly outnumbered its citizens.

The alarming decline of Spartan citizens was commented on by Aristotle. Sparta never fully recovered from its losses at Leuctra in BCE and the subsequent helot revolts.

Nonetheless, it was able to continue as a regional power for over two centuries. Neither Philip II nor his son Alexander the Great attempted to conquer Sparta itself.

Even during its decline, Sparta never forgot its claim to be the "defender of Hellenism" and its Laconic wit. When Philip created the League of Corinth on the pretext of unifying Greece against Persia, the Spartans chose not to join, since they had no interest in joining a pan-Greek expedition unless it were under Spartan leadership.

Thus, upon defeating the Persians at the Battle of the Granicus , Alexander the Great sent to Athens suits of Persian armour with the following inscription: "Alexander, son of Philip, and all the Greeks except the Spartans, give these offerings taken from the foreigners who live in Asia".

During Alexander's campaigns in the east, the Spartan king Agis III sent a force to Crete in BCE with the aim of securing the island for Sparta.

A large Macedonian army under general Antipater marched to its relief and defeated the Spartan-led force in a pitched battle. On his knees, the Spartan king slew several enemy soldiers before being finally killed by a javelin.

During the Punic Wars , Sparta was an ally of the Roman Republic. Spartan political independence was put to an end when it was eventually forced into the Achaean League after its defeat in the decisive Laconian War by a coalition of other Greek city-states and Rome and the resultant overthrow of its final king Nabis.

Sparta played no active part in the Achaean War in BCE when the Achaean League was defeated by the Roman general Lucius Mummius.

Subsequently, Sparta became a free city under Roman rule, some of the institutions of Lycurgus were restored, [49] and the city became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan customs.

In CE Roman emperor Caracalla , in his preparation for his campaign against Parthia , recruited a man Spartan cohort lokhos.

Herodian described this unit as a phalanx , implying it fought like the old Spartans as hoplites, or even as a Macedonian phalanx.

Despite this, a gravestone of a fallen legionary named Marcus Aurelius Alexys shows him lightly armed, with a pilos-like cap and a wooden club. The unit was presumably discharged in after Caracalla was assassinated.

An exchange of letters in the deutero-canonical First Book of Maccabees expresses a Jewish claim to kinship with the Spartans:.

Areus king of the Lacedemonians to Onias the high priest, greeting: It is found in writing, that the Lacedemonians and Jews are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham : Now therefore, since this is come to our knowledge, ye shall do well to write unto us of your prosperity.

We do write back again to you, that your cattle and goods are ours, and ours are yours. The letters are reproduced in a variant form by Josephus.

In CE, Sparta was sacked by Visigoths under Alaric I who sold inhabitants into slavery. Doric -speaking populations survive today in Tsakonia.

In the Middle Ages, the political and cultural center of Laconia shifted to the nearby settlement of Mystras , and Sparta fell further in even local importance.

Modern Sparti was re-founded in , by a decree of King Otto of Greece. Sparta was an oligarchy. The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families , [59] both supposedly descendants of Heracles and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the power and political enactments of his colleague.

The duties of the kings were primarily religious, judicial, and military. As chief priests of the state, they maintained communication with the Delphian sanctuary, whose pronouncements exercised great authority in Spartan politics.

In the time of Herodotus c. Aristotle describes the kingship at Sparta as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual generalship" Pol.

Civil and criminal cases were decided by a group of officials known as the ephors , as well as a council of elders known as the gerousia.

The gerousia consisted of 28 elders over the age of 60, elected for life and usually part of the royal households, and the two kings.

Royal prerogatives were curtailed over time. From the period of the Persian wars, the king lost the right to declare war and was accompanied in the field by two ephors.

He was supplanted by the ephors also in the control of foreign policy. Over time, the kings became mere figureheads except in their capacity as generals.

Political power was transferred to the ephors and gerousia. An assembly of citizens called the a pella [23] was responsible for electing men to the gerousia for life.

The Spartan education process known as the agoge was essential for full citizenship. However, usually the only boys eligible for the agoge were Spartiates , those who could trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the city.

There were two exceptions. Trophimoi or "foster sons" were foreign students invited to study. The Athenian general Xenophon , for example, sent his two sons to Sparta as trophimoi.

Also, the son of a helot could be enrolled as a syntrophos [63] if a Spartiate formally adopted him and paid his way; if he did exceptionally well in training, he might be sponsored to become a Spartiate.

These laws meant that Sparta could not readily replace citizens lost in battle or otherwise, which eventually proved near fatal as citizens became greatly outnumbered by non-citizens, and even more dangerously by helots.

The other classes were the perioikoi , free inhabitants who were non-citizens, and the helots , [65] state-owned serfs.

Descendants of non-Spartan citizens were forbidden the agoge. The Spartans were a minority of the Lakonian population. The helots were originally free Greeks from the areas of Messenia and Lakonia whom the Spartans had defeated in battle and subsequently enslaved.

In contrast to populations conquered by other Greek cities [ citation needed ] e. Instead, the helots were given a subordinate position in society more comparable to serfs in medieval Europe than chattel slaves in the rest of Greece.

Helots did not have voting or political rights. In other Greek city-states, free citizens were part-time soldiers who, when not at war, carried on other trades.

Since Spartan men were full-time soldiers, they were not available to carry out manual labour.

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